Botanical Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Potatoes
Potato is a perennial herb. During the growth reaches a height from 40 to 100 centimeters and in special cases can grow up to 150 centimeters. Among the crops was introduced as an annual herb. Mature potato is covered with a solid shell that can be white, pink, red or purple.
Those who had the opportunity to squeeze potato juice, they did it without much difficulty because potatoes comprised more than 75% water. Triad “protein-fat-carbohydrate”, in potatoes is represented primarily in carbohydrate: Starch, on average is present in 16%. In some varieties starch can reach 23%. The content of starch depends on the period of ripening of potatoes: those fruits that are harvested later have a greater amount of starch. Early ripe potato has the smallest dose of starch. Other monosaccharides and polysaccharides are represented with glucose (0.6%), sucrose (0.6%), fructose (0.1%), pectic compounds (0.5%), cellulose (1.0%) etc.
Potatoes are considered one of the main food products with a major curative – preventive effect on the body. It is based on quantitative and qualitative composition of protein and fat which are included in its composition.
The content of albuminous substances in potatoes is not high: their level does not exceed 3%. At the same time, compared to other numerous herbs, proteins in potato stand out for easy adoption by the body. In addition, it possesses a high biological value: almost 20 amino acids that are in its composition are indispensable (amino acids that the body does not produce and their lack may be completed using albuminous food) and present in full scale.
Small amount of fat (no more than 0.1%) makes potatoes fully adopt food. Wide range organic acids form its taste and its medicinal properties.
The composition of vitamins is determined by carotenoid that dissolves fat, provitamin A (their large quantity observed in potatoes which are yellow), the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B9, C, D, E, F, K, P, PP, folic acid and pantothenic acid.
The potato is one of the main sources of mineral elements. Using potato as a food, can gets more than 30 macronutrients and micronutrients. These include: potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, chlorine, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, fluorine, iodine, sulfur, bromine, arsenic, molybdenum, aluminum, nickel and others.
In all parts of the plant alkaloids are present including solanine which can have toxic effects on the body, but if you use a low dose, which is not dangerous, you could get a certain curative effect.